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Showing 1 through 5 of 9,112 records.
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2006 - International Studies Association Words: 260 words || 
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1. Dias, Alexandra. "From Brothers War to Border War: An Interstate War in the Post- Cold War Era Ethiopia- Eritrea (1998-2000)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p99145_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Interstate wars are not one of the most salient features of current World Politics. Indeed, the prevailing patterns of post- Cold War Conflict reveal an increasing trend in intrastate wars that spill over borders. This paper aims to provide insights from an inter-state war in the post-Cold War era and hence contribute to the ongoing debate on the changing nature of warfare. The case-study provides evidence to contradict the strand of the literature which claims that we are witnessing a decisive transformation of warfare (Van Creveld 1991); (Kaldor 1999). Beyond the continuities with the 30 years civil war, namely in the relations between the Tigray People?s Liberation Front(TPLF) and the Eritrean People?s Liberation Front (EPLF), the 1998-2000 war was waged between the armed forces of two sovereign states. The paper highlights the value- added of the case- study to the debates on the transformation of warfare, on the patterns of warfare in Africa and on the dynamics of state formation in the South. This is one of the few cases of inter-state war in Africa. is a crucial contribution to comparative perspectives on the causation of intra-state (civil) wars and interstate wars in Africa and in other regions in the South. The central claim of this paper is that neighbours do fight over territory. Indeed, the paper will argue that territory is central to understand the causes, the conduct and the outcomes of the 1998- 2000 interstate war. The inability of either state to accept any territorial changes reveals that territory is central for the definition of the sovereign state.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 72 pages || Words: 21904 words || 
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2. Meiser, Jeffrey. "The Rhetoric and Reality of Civil War: From the American Civil War to the Iraq Civil War and Back Again" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p253894_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The variety and frequency of analogical reasoning in the public discourse surrounding the invasion of Iraq is remarkable. Perhaps most remarkable is the comparison that has been made between the U.S. Civil War and the Iraq civil war. The purposes of this paper are to show why the American Civil War analogy was deployed by advocates of “staying the course” in Iraq, consider what effect this discursive strategy may have had on American policy in Iraq, and finally to compare the U.S. Civil War and Iraq civil war using an analytical framework derived from civil war theory. In moving toward achieving these goals, I employ cognitive and constructivist theories on the role of ideas in foreign policy, as well as theories of the causes of civil wars. The central findings have both academic and policy relevance. First, several Bush administration officials and certain public intellectuals have used the American Civil War analogy (and other rhetorical devices) to shape policy in the short-run and American collective identity in the long-run. Second, the U.S. Civil War analogy does not provide useful guidance for American policy in Iraq. Policy makers and analysts should not allow the memory of the American experience with internal conflict affect their understanding of current and future civil wars. Third, current theories of internal war can provide a useful lens for understanding both ‘old’ and ‘new’ civil wars, but are much better suited to explaining recent civil wars. This finding suggests that unlike international relations theory, internal war theories are time-bound. It is striking that modern theories of internal war cannot explain one of the most important civil wars of the past 200 years.

2004 - American Political Science Association Pages: 38 pages || Words: 10642 words || 
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3. Sullivan, Patricia. "War Aims and War Outcomes: When Powerful States Lose Limited Wars" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Sep 02, 2004 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p61855_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite their immense war-fighting capacity, major power states failed to attain their primary political objective in almost 40% of their military operations against weak state and non-state targets since 1945. Why do strong states frequently fail to achieve even limited objectives when they use military force against vastly weaker targets? Evidence from recent research suggests that war outcomes are largely a function of strategic selection (war initiation), military-industrial capabilities, combat effectiveness, and strategy choice. But none of these factors can explain why a major power would ever lose an armed conflict with a weak target.

In sharp contrast to existing theories, I focus on the nature of the political objective being pursued to explain military intervention outcomes. I argue that relative military capabilities and relative tolerance for the costs of war affect the outcome of all wars, but that in asymmetric wars, the marginal effect of these two factors varies according to the nature of the political objective being pursued by the strong state. In particular, an actor’s destructive capacity relative to its opponent becomes less important, and each side’s tolerance for the costs of war become more important, as attainment of the actor’s political objectives becomes more dependent on target compliance. By acknowledging the critical role of war aims, this theory is able to 1) identify constraints on the military effectiveness of strong states and 2) specify the conditions under which military capabilities determine outcomes and those under which relative tolerance for costs moderates the effectiveness of force. The empirical implications of the theory are tested on an original data set of all major power military operations against both state and nonstate targets since World War II.

2005 - American Political Science Association Pages: 19 pages || Words: 6716 words || 
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4. LeCheminant, Wayne. "Looking at War through War Literature: Morality, Democracies, and Citizens in the Time of War." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p40265_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Fortunately, war is something that most of us will not experience firsthand, meaning that most of us will never be the participants or the victims of a battle, a firefight, a bombing raid, and the like. However, in democracies citizens are required to make decisions concerning war and peace—at the very least citizens are required to elect leaders to make these decisions for them. Most of the images and ideas that people have about war are taken from either accounts of policy makers or from brief news clips and articles. Rarely, does the in-depth, moral discussion that is required of citizens accompany these images. In this paper I discuss the various ways in which war literature can help us engage the difficulties and complexities of war. There are both practical, theoretical dimensions to how war literature can help us and a moral dimension to this literature. I first examine a variety of literature, from classics such as All Quiet on the Western Front and Rumor of War to less known works to the general populace such as Nip the Buds, Shoot the Kids, The Tin Drum, Slaughter-House Five and Johnny Got His Gun. I show the literature’s usefulness in helping the non-combatant to understanding the ambiguity, the struggle and pain, and the difficulties of war. I then argue that this type of literature has a great deal to “teach” us about the experience of war. 1) Obviously it addresses both directly and indirectly important normative questions. It can serve as the moral springboard to the necessary discussions that citizens “ought” to have concerning war. 2) This literature addresses the structure in which wars are fought. There is a difference in perception and standpoint from the warrior to the policy maker. Typically, in the social sciences we look at the viewpoint of the policy maker rather than those who struggle with war, either as combatants or civilians. This dimension adds a different voice to the debates about war. 3) Literature brings into question what counts as facts and how these facts “should” be interpreted. 4) This literature serves as a launching point for us to question the assumptions upon which so much of our investigations are built. 5) Lastly, this work can give the social scientist another interesting viewpoint into thick description or interesting quantitative work. This is especially important when one considers that literature actually can have an impact on the citizens of a democracy who read these works and will have these works as a part of how they see and understand war. I also argue that making use of such literature is a good way of approaching the issue of war to younger students, that is to say college students, than the way most students are inculcated into the discussion of violence, which is usually through movies. In literature, the moral discussion is always an important presence.

2005 - International Studies Association Pages: 35 pages || Words: 11456 words || 
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5. Toft, Monica. "Population Shifts and Civil War: A Test of Power Transition Theory Population Shifts and Civil War: A Test of Power Transition Theory Population Shifts and Civil War" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, Mar 05, 2005 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p72013_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper presents a test of elements of Power Transition Theory (PTT) through an examination of types of demographic transitions against civil war. It divides population transitions into nine types and, from PTT logic, derives testable hypotheses. It also tests elements of PTT's rival, Balance of Power Theory (BPT). Although the logic of PTT seems appropriate to testing at the substate level, the results are mixed. Most states plagued by ethnic civil wars have stable populations (i.e. no transitions), yet three types of transitions stand out. Even here, however, PTT predicts violence in only one of these three types of transitions. BPT fares a bit better.

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