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2004 - International Studies Association Words: 408 words || 
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1. Huhtinen, Aki. "Changing warfare, information warfare and imagewars" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p73898_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: When the United States found itself being the target of terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, it decided to use of military force as the major means of abolishing terrorists (instead of paying attention to the bases of terrorism). The current deputy defense secretary Paul Wolfowitz can be seen as the architect of the new policy of the use of force, while the theoretical architect of the military doctrine is Harlan Ullman with his thoughts of shock and awe. According to this new doctrine the United States is justified to carry out pre-emptive strikes on states or networks considered to be a threat to US security. The threat to security is created especially when economic and technological structures are endangered. This paper aims at clarifying the relationship between information and violence, and especially to the reorganization of military force. Through the latter, emphasis is also placed on the re-evaluation of political means that are made possible by military force. It is maintained that war is no longer the continuation of politics by other means, but politics is the continuation of war by other means. The shock and awe strategy is based on the chain of ideas in which the use of physical force is to cause dramatical psychological fear so preventing military counter-moves by the enemy. An atmosphere of fear is used to create psychological, physical and emotional chaos that leads to social helplessness and surrender, or to taking the risk that continuing resistance will lead to total destruction. The military doctrines are an aspect or application of more general theories of information (and information society). Therefore, the basic point of departure is the idea that as far as speed and expenses are concerned, the most efficient way to code knowledge, i.e. information, leads to the behaviorization of society and the overheating of thoughts. The major task is to show how the present information age represents and is based on the return of social Darwinism. A key part of this ideology is to perceive and model human behavior in a mechanical way in order to submit it to rigorous scientific analysis and management. The narrowing of time, the automatization of life, the privatization of power and the alliances of the economy and technology result in the need to simplify human perception, behavior and thinking. Simple discourses lead to easy solutions and the consequences may include the lowering of the level of the use of force.

2017 - APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition Words: 139 words || 
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2. Nedal, Dani. "Nuclear Warfare is Urban Warfare: How Urban Geography Shapes Nuclear Strategy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition, TBA, San Francisco, CA, Aug 31, 2017 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1258007_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The paper offers a novel theory on the effects of urban geography on nuclear strategy. It is the first theory that seeks to explain variation in the nuclear strategies of great powers and lesser powers alike, drawing on case studies of developments in the US, Soviet Union and United Kingdom as well as nuclear thinking in a variety of other nuclear and quasi-nuclear countries. I argue that perceptions of absolute and relative urban vulnerability, which are in turn related to degrees of urban concentration and how they compare to their rivals’, inform countries' choices of nuclear strategy. High urban vulnerability encourages reliance on deterrence by punishment and discourages damage limitation strategies. Low urban vulnerability is less constraining, allowing for a greater variety of strategies, including strategies that attempt to leverage relative degrees of vulnerability for signaling and coercive bargaining.

2009 - ASC Annual Meeting Pages: 8 pages || Words: 2304 words || 
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3. Todish, Barbara. "Are We Practicing Warfare Externally Because We Have Mastered Warfare Internally?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 03, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p372059_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Can we all become peacemakers by freeing ourselves from drama and ego? Are our constructed identities the problem and can we become anonymous revolutionaries? Communication that is free from drama and ego can be practiced and then mastered with the goal of acheiving all basic needs met so that individuals can emerge from competitions, comparisons, stereotypes, labels, all constructed categories of identities into freedom from drama and ego and defensiveness.

2009 - 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions Words: 303 words || 
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4. Bousquet, Antoine. "Chaoplexic Warfare: Network-Centric Warfare and the Non-Linear Sciences" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions, Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Crystal City, VA, <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p373981_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: This paper will provide a critical appraisal of the influence of the scientific ideas of chaos and complexity theory on contemporary military thought, in particular through a treatment of the current official Pentagon doctrine of Network-Centric Warfare (NCW). STS scholars Paul Edwards and Chris Hables Gray have previously produced illuminating accounts of the impact of cybernetics on the U.S. military during the Cold War and beyond. This paper proposes to complement and extend this work by taking into account the more recent outgrowth and transformation of the original cybernetic paradigm into the non-linear sciences of chaos and complexity (taken here together as ‘chaoplexity’) with their emphasis on decentralised networks, emergence, positive feedback and run-away processes of change.

Starting with the early insights of military strategist John Boyd in the early eighties, chaoplexic ideas have increasingly permeated the mainstream of military thought in the United States. Drawing on the doctrinal literature of Network-Centric Warfare, this paper will draw out the explicit and implicit chaoplexic influences behind the military concepts of swarming and self-synchronisation. However it will also find that, although references to chaoplexity are numerous within the NCW literature, there are nonetheless significant discrepancies between doctrinal pronouncements and the scientific theories it draws inspiration from. There thus remains considerable doubt about the extent to which NCW truly represents a break with the limitations of previous rigid centralised cybernetic frameworks, the failings of which have been well documented by the aforementioned scholars.

Nevertheless, this paper concludes that the development of the non-linear sciences in the last few decades is being accompanied by a transformation in the theories and practices of warfare (as was previously observed with the rise of cybernetics) and NCW, however imperfectly, can be seen as one of the heralds of the emergence of a new scientific mode of war: chaoplexic warfare.

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