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2012 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 5635 words || 
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1. Sharone, Ofer. "Where Are Weak Ties Strong? Labor Market Institutions and the Effectiveness of Weak Ties" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Colorado Convention Center and Hyatt Regency, Denver, CO, Aug 16, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p563968_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper argues that Granovetter’s (1973, 1995) findings regarding the effectiveness of weak ties are rooted in the particular institutional context of the American white-collar labor market. Building on prior research that considers the effects of institutional contexts on the usefulness of weak versus strong ties (e.g., Bian 1997), this paper utilizes a cross-national comparison to explore how labor market institutional contexts affect white-collar workers’ use of weak ties to find work across advanced market economies. Specifically, by drawing on in-depth interviews with unemployed job seekers in Israel and the United States, and participant observations at job search support groups in both sites, this paper explores the relationship between the use of weak ties and labor market institutions in two advanced market economies. It finds that American job seekers are much more likely than Israelis to use weak ties due to distinct characteristics of the American white-collar institutional context.

2017 - APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition Words: 409 words || 
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2. La Raja, Raymond. and Michelot, Vincent. "Weak Parties, Weak Democracy: Challenges and Reforms in France and the US" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition, TBA, San Francisco, CA, Aug 31, 2017 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1249731_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Recent elections in advanced democracies reveal strong anti-establishment sentiments among significant factions of the electorate together with a declining ability of major parties to structure the vote in ways that make for effective governance. We conduct an analysis of the party system and major party organizations in the United States (1972—present) and France (1995-present) to trace developments over time to observe how changing party structures might be linked to the weakening of ties between the electorate and party elites. We focus specifically on political reforms – especially primary elections and party finance – in the context of a changing media environment that affected the functioning of the political parties.

Traditionally, both nations have had strong presidential systems and stable party systems that co-exist with relatively weak party organizations compared to other advanced democracies. Moreover, the major political parties in both nations have attempted to accommodate emerging participatory norms and increase legitimacy by opening up the candidate selection process to voters through primary elections but also platform writing. This has resulted on either side of the Atlantic in a blurring of Left/Right or Conservative/Liberal divides and policymaking power tilting away from the legislature to the executive. At the same time, however, the parties in each nation face key differences in how they finance politics and engage in electioneering. Yet, beyond the differences, they have experienced similar fates with respect to populist anger against traditional candidates and fragmentation of political intermediation.

In this paper we focus on the changing mediating role of the major political parties. Specifically, we examine how party elites conduct a weakened form of political mediation with voters in the context of a changing media environment and social norms that emphasize participatory democracy and transparency over elite control. For this reason the paper fits squarely into the theme of the conference “The Quest for Legitimacy: Actors, Audiences and Aspirations”. It is an analysis of how political institutions fail to adapt, via reforms and organizational strategies, to the broader changes in society related to technology, demography, culture and voters' expectations on governance within fast-changing political environments. During this turbulent period when elites face diminishing trust and legitimacy, our analysis has implications for future party and electoral reforms. We posit that weakened parties – which have lost signficant control over messaging, resources and agenda setting – have rendered them less able to mediate politics on-the-ground among voters and cope with the complexities of governing.

2008 - MPSA Annual National Conference Pages: 73 pages || Words: 19685 words || 
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3. Geis, John. "The Strength of Weakness: Why the Weak Win in Asymmetric Warfare" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual National Conference, Palmer House Hotel, Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 03, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p267874_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study conducts a "large-n" analysis of all interstate asymmetric conflicts from 1850 to the present time to determine why weak states win conflicts against much stronger adversaries a disprortionate amount of the time.

2008 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 24 pages || Words: 6482 words || 
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4. Desai, Manali. "Weak States, Strong States?: Post-Colonial Governance, Weak Class, and Strong Ethnicity in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston and the Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA, Jul 31, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p239718_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Institutionalist explanations of modern ethnic violence tend to emphasize the weakness of the state or the failure of civic institutions to prevent violence. Without adequate specification of mechanisms, however, this cluster of explanations risks becoming tautological. Moreover, restricting explanation to proximate temporalities may at times be misleading. This article proposes a historical turn in explanations of ethnic violence, focusing on how legacies of state formation and embedded political networks promote the possibility that violent repertoires will be used at specific historical moments. Using a range of archival and historical sources on recurrent Hindu-Muslim violence in western India, and comparative cases to discipline the theory, this paper demonstrates that ethnic violence becomes a stronger possibility in cases where prior trajectories of state formation have deepened, formalized, and accordingly policed ethnic categories. These possibilities are turned into actual events of ethnic violence when organizations and parties tap them as legacies to create ethnic blocs at unstable historical moments to win political ascendancy. While organizing these blocs they either take advantage of the prior disorganization of other possible social formations (suppressed historical possibilities), or actively disorganize them through tactics that often involve violence.

2009 - The Law and Society Association Pages: 35 pages || Words: 10239 words || 
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5. Kruse, Karl. "Strong Arm, Weak Law: Explanations for Weakness in International Regulation Regimes for Private Military Companies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Grand Hyatt, Denver, Colorado, May 25, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p303658_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Regimes emerge when the gains from their existence exceeds the costs of their creation and maintenance. Currently, there are no comprehensive and binding international regimes to regulate the actions of Private Military Companies (PMCs). Those that do exist have been insufficient to address the numerous reports of widespread abuses by these companies which range from contract mismanagement to human rights abuse. Calls have come from academia, governments, and even the companies themselves for a more cohesive regulatory regime. An interaction of sovereignty costs and agency slack helps explain the weakness of regulatory regimes regarding the industry. Increasing international regulation adds complexity to the already tangled relationship between PMCs and states, creating multiple responsibilities to multiple principles, compounding existing problems with agency. This is particularly true with the United States, the leading user and provider of PMC services. The prospective costs of creating and enforcing international laws on the issue outweigh the prospective benefits, hindering international cooperation on the issue. Thus, states continue to prefer to attempt to apply a strong arm in controlling contracting companies rather than a weak law.

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