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2015 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 10065 words || 
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1. Ma, Josef. and Vachon, Todd. "Bridging the Digital Gap between Wealthier and Poorer Students? A Cross-National Analysis" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Chicago and Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Aug 20, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1009601_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Students from high-income or more-educated families have more digital skills and higher Internet literacy than their socioeconomically (SES) disadvantaged peers. Until recently, this digital inequality—also called the digital divide—persists worldwide, particularly in the U.S. Using the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), we examine cross-national variation in the size of the digital divide between higher-SES and lower-SES students across 61 countries. We consider two aspects of the digital gap: computer use in learning and Internet literacy. We find that there is substantial variation across countries in the size of the digital gap. Results from multilevel regression models present that economic development has a substantial effect in bridging the digital divide, but political freedom does not impact the digital gap. We also find that cross-national differences in the digital divide are systematically linked to a country’s expenditure on education, investment on research and development (R&D), and degree of trade openness.

2012 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 186 words || 
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2. Pitt, Cassady. "Religion for the Poor and Performing Arts for the Wealthier: Poverty and Delinquency" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Nov 13, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-10-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p574463_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Poverty has been shown to weaken social bonds, thus contributing to adolescent delinquency. However, religion and other pro-social activities, like involvement in performing arts, have been shown to build strong social bonds to decrease adolescents’ likelihood of engaging in delinquent behavior. Prior work focuses on the individual level associations between religion and delinquency and involvement in performing arts and positive outcomes, but does not consider how these measures may have buffering effects on the relationship between poverty and delinquency. Because poorer areas lack the funds to support performing arts and other extracurricular activities, it is expected that religion would a stronger buffer for those who are poorer. Likewise, since the affordability of performing arts and other programming is more prominent in middle-class communities, it is expected that performing arts participation would be a stronger buffer for those of higher SES. The Add Health dataset will be used for this analysis. Bivariate results indicate correlations between low SES and religion and high SES and performing arts. Further, there is a negative association between low SES and performing arts and a negative association between high SES and religion.

2011 - SASE Annual Conference Words: 179 words || 
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3. Bartram, David. "Migration, Return, and Happiness: On Seeking One’s Fortune in a Wealthier Country" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SASE Annual Conference, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain, Madrid, Spain, Jun 23, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-10-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p503200_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research on happiness finds that rising incomes do not generally lead to increases in happiness. This finding suggests that economic migration – i.e., migration motivated by the prospect of increased income – might not bring greater happiness: when economic migrants believe that migration will improve their lives, that belief might be mistaken at least insofar as “improvement” is conceived in terms related to happiness. Perhaps economic migration even results in lower happiness, if it involves sacrifices in other respects that are more consequential for happiness. This paper explores these propositions via comparison of returned Romanian migrants to Romanian non-migrants (using data from the European Social Survey) and finds that migrants report lower happiness than non-migrants (controlling for other variables). The cross-sectional analysis cannot directly answer questions about the consequences of migration and return – there are no data on the migrants’ happiness prior to migration. But the analysis sharpens the questions that might be asked in future research and considers how various scenarios would (and would not) be consistent with the findings produced here.

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