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2013 - Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting Words: 14 words || 
1. Krannich, Richard. "New West and Old West: Natural Amenities and Social Change in the Intermountain West" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Nugget Casino, Reno/Sparks, Nevada, Mar 21, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-11-15 <>
Publication Type: Formal research paper presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: New West and Old West: Natural Amenities and Social Change in the Intermountain West

2014 - ASEH Conference – San Francisco Words: 278 words || 
2. Brewitt, Peter. "Same River Twice: The New West, the Old West, and Dam Removal" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASEH Conference – San Francisco, Parc 55 Wyndham Hotel, San Francisco, California, Mar 12, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-11-15 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Dams are falling across the Pacific Northwest as the maturing environmental movement works to restore, not just preserve, wild lands and species. With American infrastructure ageing and new values ascendant, the environmental story of the New West would appear to be one of ecological rebirth. Some 600 American dams have been removed since 1990, a disproportionate number of them in the states of California, Oregon, and Washington. But even as economies shift and concrete crumbles, the social forces that built the region’s dams remain firmly entrenched. River management decisions become political and cultural wars. In this paper, I explore the rhetorical frames used by stakeholders in three northwestern dam removals: Savage Rapids Dam, from Oregon’s Rogue River, Marmot Dam, from Oregon’s Sandy River, and the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams, from the Elwha River, Washington.

While old dams may no longer be very productive (productive dams are unlikely to be removed) the echoes of Manifest Destiny and the Old West make them a symbol of progress and prosperity for many stakeholders. Antagonists’ beliefs about the best use of dams and rivers, the true nature of the problem, acceptable solutions, and who to blame, shape debates and ultimately landscapes. In each of these cases, local people saw the dam (and its reservoir) as a public resource and a natural feature, and resented outsiders changing their familiar landscape. To environmental, fishing, and tribal groups, the dams represented an old injustice and antiquated values, particularly as many seminal episodes in environmental history have centered on dams. The process of reconciling or diminishing these differences sheds light on socio-cultural change in the American West and on landscape issues throughout the United States.

2015 - 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 764 words || 
3. Tsai, Shu-Chen. "East is East and West is West and now the twain have met" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C., Mar 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-11-15 <>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Objectives
The general objective of the research is to understand the perceptions, struggles, challenges, adaptations, and recommendations of Canadian graduate students previously socialized in the four most Confucian influenced cultures of East Asia as they encounter the Western pedagogical environment of Canadian graduate schools. Some of the more specific objectives are to answer the following:
1. How can Canadian graduate school professors, staff, and student peers be better equipped to understand and interpret the reactions of such Confucian trained students?
2. How can the countries of origin of these students better prepare them to thrive in Canadian graduate schools?
3. What survival recommendations do these students have for future students coming from their cultures to Canadian graduate schools?
4. Which of the two educational approaches (Confucian or Canadian) do they perceive as more effective for their learning?
5. Can listening oriented Confucian trained scholars learn effectively in the dialogue orientated educational culture of Canadian graduate schools and, if so, how?
6. Is the teacher-student relationship that exists in Confucian educational culture in opposition to that in Canadian education and, if so, how and what effect does it have upon learning?
7. Do the Confucian education orientated goals of social face, social tranquility, and social hierarchy present learning problems in the educational environment of Canadian graduate schools and, if so, how are these problems resolved?
8. Do epistemological differences in the education of their home cultures and the education they encounter in Canadian graduate schools present learning problems and, if so, how are these problems resolved?

Main perspective and theoretical conceptual framework
Educational institutions arise from, are grounded in, and reflect the most deeply held values of a culture. The four East Asian cultures that are the objects of this research are and continue to be deeply influenced by ideas of Confucianism. In order to most effectively provide scholars trained and socialized in these educational cultures the greatest opportunities for intellectual growth, Canadian graduate schools need to recognize the learning styles and learning values that these students bring into Canadian classrooms as well as the learning related incompatibilities between Confucian and Canadian education that they are asking these students to overcome.

Mode of inquiry
The research uses qualitative, phenomenological interviews of eighteen East Asian graduate students who received their previous education up to an undergraduate degree in one of the four Confucian influenced cultures that were the focus of this research. The four cultures were China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan and there were at least two subjects representing both genders from each of the four cultures.

Data sources
Extensive interviews with graduate students from the Confucian influenced cultures of China, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan were conducted. These four cultures are among the greatest contributors of foreign graduate students to Canadian universities.

Results and conclusions
A description and analysis of possible educational differences that exist between Confucian education and Canadian education is offered as well as reflections regarding how they may be best addressed in Canadian graduate education in order to offer an inclusive atmosphere to not only students from non-English speaking cultures but also to students from non-Western pedagogies.

Significance of the study
Substantial research has examined language barriers encountered by graduate scholars coming from English as second language counties to Canadian graduate schools. We know that much of culture is contained in or carried by language. However, this research seeks to examine and better understand the transition experience of graduate students attempting to transcend not only language barriers and challenges but also the Confucian related educational cultural barriers and challenges they encounter in the distinctly different Canadian pedagogical environment.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 23 pages || Words: 9412 words || 
4. Brunk, Darren. "How The West Was Won (Over): Genocide, the Failure of the West and the Power of Guilt in Darfur, Sudan" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-11-15 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: How do Western perceptions of Africa influence the international community?s policy-making towards African conflict? Towards examining this question, this paper will focus on the international community?s perceptions of, and policies towards, the recent violence in Darfur, Sudan (2003 to present). This case will focus on the international community?s response to the Darfur crisis during the formative months following the Sudanese Liberation Army?s (SLA) high-profile offensive in February 2003. In particular, it will examine how the popular recollections of the international community?s failure to name the Rwandan crisis of 1994 as ?genocide? has influenced international NGO and regional actor lobby efforts directed towards Western state and UN agency policy-makers today. The historical experience in Rwanda and the question of ?genocide? has provided a pivotal perceptual battle ground between different Sudanese, African and international agents in the clash over the appropriate international policy response to the Darfur crisis.

2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 25 pages || Words: 12092 words || 
5. Fenelon, James. and Bowles, Matthew. "Settlers and Hostiles: Colonial Hate Rhetoric from the Wild West to the West Bank" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-11-15 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Labels such as “settler” for invading groups establishing territorial dominance, and/or “hostile” for indigenous groups resisting the cultural and political invasion, are primary sources for ethnic hatred and racial conflicts. Dominant group interpretations and media uses reinforce “progress” and “civilized” descriptors which justify and rationalize their violent suppression in the name of “law and order” networks they control. The first wide-spread usage of such terms was in the pacification of the “wild west” territories of the United States, against indigenous peoples as “savage” Indians. Contemporary usage exactly resembles past forms, including Israeli and U.S. media descriptors for “settlers” new towns in Palestinian lands, especially the “west bank” area.
These labels are products of ethnocentric racism and cultural domination arising from conquest and colonialism, and are prime purveyors of supremacist ideologies and ethnic hatred. We analyze their historical usage in 19th century western United States and contemporary usage in the Israeli-Palestinian conflicts, finding strong parallels. We observe there are near continuous examples of such terms in the media, extending out from a Euro-American global dominance, and resonating with regional conflicts, as in Israel. We stress that unpacking linguistic terms is central to non-continuance of racial hatred, and remains critical in tough times when new forms such as “terrorist” replace old forms, with potential affect on civil rights and an erosion of hard-won “equal treatment” laws, possibly interfering with peace negotiations and conflict resolution.

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