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2005 - American Sociological Association Pages: 20 pages || Words: 5968 words || 
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1. Wright-Smith, Hara Wright-Smith. "African American commuter and community congregations: Lessons from East Wilmington" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p18721_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper argues that as families continue to move from our nation’s inner cities to the suburbs, new patterns of segregation are forming in the black community, affecting inner city congregations. Today’s phenomenon is one part of the continuum of migration that began with slavery and proceeded with the movement of black populations from the rural south to northern urban centers. As the gap continues to widen between Black lower income groups and the growing Black middle class, congregations are becoming increasingly segregated based on where people live.

Drawing from a case study of churches on the East Side of Wilmington, Delaware, the research shows what happens as a result of social and economic changes tied to the movement of Black populations on religious institutions that stay rooted in these neighborhoods. The historical shift from residential segregation to residential integration caused two different types of urban congregations to emerge – characterized as commuter congregations and community congregation – whose community-serving ministries are distinguishable from one another. Despite neighborhood change, however, East Side congregations have not abandoned their social commitment to inner city neighborhoods. In fact, contrary to scholarly wisdom, the research finds that commuter congregations provide more social services than community congregations that have mainly city residents as members.

2006 - Association for the Study of African American Life and History Words: 218 words || 
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2. Umfleet, LeRae. ""A Day of Blood at Wilmington": A Lesson on How to Plan a Riot" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History, NA, Atlanta, GA, Sep 26, 2006 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p142850_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: The Wilmington Race Riot of November 10, 1898 has emerged as a pivotal point in the history of race relations in the state of North Carolina. Wilmington’s violence did not happen in a vacuum but was part of a larger Democratic Party campaign to regain control of state and local government from a black/white Republican/Populist coalition. The 1898 campaign capped by violence in Wilmington proved to be a catalyst for the state – Jim Crow legislation and subjugation of African Americans resulted statewide. Because Wilmington rioters were able to murder blacks in daylight and overthrow Republican government without penalty or federal intervention, everyone in the state, regardless of race, knew that the white supremacy campaign was victorious on all fronts.

The immense impact of the violence of Wilmington resonated throughout the region and, by 1906, Georgia’s ruling elite had taken notes from North Carolina’s experience. The connections between violence in Atlanta and Wilmington cannot be overlooked. This paper will briefly analyze what happened in Wilmington and demonstrate the connections between Wilmington and Atlanta. Included will be a survey of an economic analysis of these two “riot cities.” Preliminary study has shown that there might be the ability to prove a “riot trend” in economic situations for African Americans in such cities.

2010 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 7 words || 
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3. Meinhold, Stephen. "Stephen Meinhold, University of North Carolina Wilmington" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Crowne Plaza Hotel Ravinia, Atlanta, Georgia, <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p397138_index.html>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Abstract: Stephen Meinhold, University of North Carolina Wilmington

2009 - Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference Words: 185 words || 
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4. Ghoshal, R.A.. "Race Riot Memory Projects and Support for Redress of Past Racial Injustices: Evidence from Wilmington and Greensboro" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, The Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p360567_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Recent years have seen a rising tide of commissions and “memory projects” developed to commemorate past incidents of violent racial conflict in the United States. At the same time, the African American reparations movement has drawn increasing scholarly and public attention. But until now, there has been virtually no research on the effects of memory projects concerning US racial violence on public opinion about redress of such violence. This paper examines draws together the themes of memory projects and redress/reparations movements through an examination of the effects of two memory projects, both coming to fruition in early Twenty-first Century North Carolina, on views about redress. Using a representative survey of 800 North Carolinians, this paper shows that knowledge of the memory projects and the incidents they recognize yield increased public support for redress. The effects are not spurious, and are largely not explicable through an array of control variables that might be expected to be linked to redress views. The study provides evidence that whites’ widespread opposition to racial redress is not solely a function of material interests, but rather grows partly from historical unawareness.

2010 - 95th Annual Convention Words: 258 words || 
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5. Murrell, Nathaniel. and Snider, Justin. "Disempowering African-Americans in Wilmington: 1898 Coup D’état" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, Sep 29, 2010 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p435755_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Leading up to 1898, Wilmington was a bustling, thriving, port city and the largest city in North Carolina, and one of the most progressive cities in the post-War South. Only forty years since the Emancipation, the city had a majority of African-American citizens, thus becoming an early center for African-American economic, political, and social empowerment. Riding on the back of Reconstruction, African-Americans were creating a strong community that was thriving in politics, business, education, and religion. The North Carolina House of Representatives and Senate had a number of prominent African-American politicians from the party of Abraham Lincoln. Likewise, the Republican Party of Wilmington came to power through a coalition with the North Carolina Populist Party and with elected black officials in the legislature and the city boasted many black attorneys, business owners, entrepreneurs and other professionals.
In 1898, the Democrats began to gain support because of the Fusion Party failure to satisfy both sides of their party. The Democrats began to run on the campaign of white supremacy and to use propaganda and intimidation to gain support and votes from whites in Wilmington and other cities in North Carolina. The climate would boil over on November 10, 1898, when a white supremacist group called the Committee of Twenty-Five burned down the Daily Record, the city’s only black-owned newspaper, and murdered a number of African-Americans during the white coup d’état; the only successful coup on American soil. The coup demolished the structure of the African-American community economically, politically, and socially in Wilmington.

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