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2017 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Lachmann, Richard. "The American Military: Without Rival and Without Victory" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Palais des Congrès de Montréal, Montreal, Canada, Aug 12, 2017 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1244050_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: How can we explain the dichotomy between America’s unparalleled military advantage over all rival powers and a virtually unblemished record of military defeat since the end of the Cold War? And how has the strange mix of great military capacity and inability to utilize that power to attain military victories affected America’s ability to maintain geopolitical hegemony? I first follow the trajectory of U.S. military spending in relation to its geopolitical rivals from World War II to the present. I then examine the organization of the U.S. military, its relation to private contractors, and its war fighting and counterinsurgency strategies. My goal is to examine how the five factors that weakened the militaries of previous great powers manifested themselves in the U.S. military, and determine the extent to which they are strengthened by interaction effects, and also track the particular American dynamics that in the past mitigated those factors but no longer do so. The next section of the chapter traces the decline in casualty tolerance in the United States since the Vietnam War. I then look at the switch by the U.S. in its goals for the countries it dominates/invades, from developmentalism to neoliberalism, and how that shift affects America’s capacity to win wars and to dominate other countries. This chapter concludes by explaining how, despite its loss of military efficacy, the U.S. retains (at least for the moment) a degree of geopolitical hegemony.

2011 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 14151 words || 
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2. Pacewicz, Josh. "Constitutive Multiplicity without Causation: How Social Structures Do Stuff without Acting" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, NV, Aug 20, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p504289_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Theorists have long debated whether and how social structures constrain action and take one of two positions today. Structure-agency theorists argue for a causal dualism: actions are transformed by structures (and vice-versa). Others argue that structure-agency is predicated upon a logical fallacy (that non-material structures can causally manipulate material objects), and call instead for a methodological structuralism, one that treats structures as mere analytical tools. I develop a third account of structural constraint predicated upon a constitutive dualism, which posits an action-structure relation analogous to the one between a game and moves within it. To demonstrate this account’s utility, I draw upon an ethnography of rust-belt economic development planners that addresses this empirical puzzle: why do these actors promote economic incentives even though they see these as producing unsustainable fiscal problems? Economic development lies at the intersection of multiple structures and the actions of development planners are therefore characterized by a constitutive multiplicity. Their actions constitute moves in many games at once, especially economic incentives, which do impoverish municipal coffers, but also allow development planners to advance their careers, enact a professional purity, and solve economic and civic coordination problems. Although fiscally undesirable, incentives are a necessary move in other games. As in this case, constitutive multiplicity can account for structural constraint without conceptualizing structures as material things.

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