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2007 - The American Studies Association Words: 359 words || 
1. Hill, Robert. "A Woman is a Woman is a Woman: The Performance of Postwar Femininities in Transvertia's Visual Archive" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The American Studies Association, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Oct 11, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-12-15 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In 1960, Virginia Prince, a white, heterosexual, male-to-female transvestite from Los Angeles, published the first issue of an underground magazine named Transvestia, which sought to educate, entertain, and instruct heterosexually-oriented male cross-dressers. The magazine went from twenty-five initial subscribers to several hundred around the United States and the world over the twenty years of Prince’s editorship. Hundreds of men who enjoyed periodically dressing and behaving as women read Transvestia, and many also sent letters, fiction, life histories, and self-photographs to Prince for publication. In this respect, they assembled in an important cultural imaginary of their own making and became the authors of their own stories rather than the subjects of regulatory medical and stigmatizing cultural discourses. In this presentation, I examine Transvestia’s fascinating visual archive of photographic presentations of self. The hundreds of photographs that Prince published serve as visual evidence of the identity-work carried out by the readers, the raced and classed models of femininity they emulated, and the idealizations of postwar domesticity they valorized and some fetishized. In these photographs, most individuals position themselves in ultra-feminine poses inside domestic spaces. They dress in complete and respectable feminine wardrobes and enact such emblematic cultural roles as the well-bred lady, the dutiful suburban housewife, the girl-next-door, and the club woman type. As it was articulated and visualized in the pages of Transvestia, the identity-work of periodic cross-dressers speaks to complex questions at the intersection of (trans)gender politics, the politics of fantasy, feminism, and power. Many of Transvestia’s cross-dressers expressed a desire to look and act like “real women.” Their feminine personae, then, represented who they wanted to be, if only temporarily and periodically. Nevertheless, in their embodiments and performances of various postwar icons of white femininity, Transvestia’s cross-dressers undoubtedly emulated gender stereotypes during a decade of rapid social change in respect to many women’s economic and social advancement. In this paper, I intend to explore these tensions, conundrums, and complexities surrounding transvestite identity-construction as it was visualized in what may now be considered a "transgender" Cold War cultural imaginary. Finally, I consider how the visual construction of crossgender identities enriches the historiography on gender and sexuality in postwar America.

2010 - NCA 96th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 13023 words || 
2. Stillion Southard, Belinda. "Occluding Blackness and Promoting the White Woman Citizen: The Rhetoric of the National Woman's Party's Nationalization Campaign" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 96th Annual Convention, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Nov 13, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-15 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study aims to extend research efforts that expose the limits of the woman suffrage narrative. More so, it seeks to expose the rhetorical processes that enhanced and sanctioned the occlusion of African American women as the push to nationalize the woman suffrage movement intensified. To this end, this study analyzes to the rhetoric of the National Woman's Party.

2008 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 517 words || 
3. Reddy, Sujani. "Woman’s Work for Woman: US-Based Medical Missionaries and the Roots of Indian Nursing Labor" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Hyatt Regency, Albuquerque, New Mexico, <Not Available>. 2019-12-15 <>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: This paper begins with the central role played by US-based single, female medical missionaries in the establishment of biomedical nursing in colonial India. Their movement not only indicates the involvement of US-based institutions and individuals in a key British colony, it also helps us to understand processes of US racial formation and the formation of a pool of Indian nursing labor marked by gender, caste, class and religion as linked through the global frame of Euro-American imperialism. In the late nineteenth century missionaries became the primary means through which biomedicine spread among Indians. Their logic was that through the healing of bodies would come also the saving of souls. It was not just any body that missionaries sought to save, but most especially that of privileged caste and/or class Indian women, who were seen as the primary point of entry for accessing elite children and men. Such a strategy was, in part, a product of the feminization of mission work. In the United States, the church was, in all but its uppermost echelons, dominated by women. One of the arguments put forward by women’s missionary societies, in particular, was the critical role of "woman’s work for woman": the role that white American women had in saving their "heathen" sisters. Their argument was buttressed by the recent rise of women’s medical colleges. Hemmed in by a white male dominated profession to which they were the first entrants, female physicians found upward mobility in India. There the not only practiced as doctors but founded institutions that were among the earliest to train Indian nurses. The Indian students and patients that they came into contact with served as candidates for their racialized matriarchal benevolence. The latter was an especially important construction in a field where the threat women’s waged work had to be contained through reference to the "civilizing" norms of heteropatriarchy.
The prominence of US based institutions and individuals in this arena of turn-of-the-twentieth century colonial India has two critical consequences for understanding the mid-twentieth century emergence of Indian nurse migration to the US. First is the way in which mission institutions and ideologies intersected with Indian social and political hierarchies to associate Indian nursing with overwhelming Christian and primarily oppressed caste and class Indian women. These were the women who were trained to take on the bulk of missionary work, which was aimed at privileged caste and class Indian woman. They were also relegated to the lowest ranks of biomedicine in an occupation that remained under the leadership of colonial nurses into the post-independence period. When Indian nurses finally did gain access to the international labor market, they did so through grants either from or modeled on those offered by the Rockefeller Foundation (RF). Significantly, it was the RF that rewrote the map of global medical migration through a public health program built on the institutional and ideological groundwork first laid by global Protestantism; thereby linking social formation, imperial ideologies and US capital penetration at the dawn of the "American century."

2012 - 36th Annual National Council for Black Studies Words: 192 words || 
4. Karenga, Tiamoyo. "Kawaida Womanism: African Ways of Being Woman in the World" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 36th Annual National Council for Black Studies, Sheraton Atlanta Hotel, Atlanta, GA, <Not Available>. 2019-12-15 <>
Publication Type: Panelist Abstract
Abstract: This paper offers a critical examination of Kawaida womanism which is defined as thought and practice directed toward the liberation of African women as an integral and indispensable part of the liberation of African people as a whole, including the creation of the conditions necessary for the well-being and flourishing of women, men and children in family, community, society and the world. This will include discussion of its rootedness in Kawaida philosophy, classical African concepts of African womanhood and the African American womanist tradition which emerges during the Holocaust of enslavement and continues throughout Black history in the quest for liberation, quality relations between men and women, and a just and good society. Furthermore, Kawaida womanism as self-conscious and self-determined thought and practice is further defined by several basic tenets: cultural grounding; spiritual and ethical grounding; self-definition; women in community, specifically family within community; Black women and men as partners in love, life and struggle; sisterhood, service and social activism. These basic tenets speak not only to defining Kawaida womanism in thought and practice, but also to advancing and critically explaining African ways of becoming and being woman in the world.

2013 - Association for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies 45th Annual Convention Words: 34 words || 
5. Kostetskaya, Anastasia. "A Woman in Nature/A Woman Is Nature: The Eternal Feminine as a Conceptual Blend in the Russian Symbolist Poetics" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies 45th Annual Convention, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA, <Not Available>. 2019-12-15 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: My paper deals with representations of the Eternal Feminine, one of the central Symbolist tropes, via conceptual blending of human/female and natural/elemental domains across verbal and visual media of the Russian fin de siècle.

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