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2004 - International Communication Association Pages: 29 pages || Words: 8693 words || 
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1. Riggs, Karen. "The Digital Divide’s Gray Fault Line: Aging Workers, Technology, and Policy The Digital Divide’s Gray Fault Line: Aging Workers, Technology, and Policy The Digital Divide's Gray Fault Line: Aging Workers, Technology, and Policy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, LA, May 27, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2018-09-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p112421_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Drawing on the author's ethnographic and textual analysis research over a five-year period in the United States, the paper observes that older generations of workers are getting used to the new models of technology-driven communication but may not feel "at home" in them. The author suggests steps for policy makers to stimulate and reward older workers, whose roles in the "new work" are both vital and threatened. Proceeding from data suggesting that work status often drives home computer and Internet competencies and usage in the lives of Americans over 50, the author acknowledges that the advancing age of Baby Boomers will cause some generational differences in competency and usage to disappear, but cultural differences among elders will persist. Effective public policy for curing the Digital Divide must include attention to older Americans on the margins, many of whom are single women, racial minorities, and residents of central-city or rural areas, the author claims. Recommendations include:
1. Tailor retirement systems for individual differences.
2. Make employment sectors elder friendly.
3. Make the educational system non-discriminatory.
4. Eliminate ageist practices inside the academy.
5. Strengthen policies to deter age discrimination by employers.
6. Encourage inclusive images of older workers.
7. Stop retrofitting facilities to "shoehorn" in disabled (often older) workers.
8. Encourage intergenerational learning communities.
9. Pursue age studies and intergenerational research.
The author concludes that citizens must assume a collective responsibility for re-creating social environments that will accommodate unprecedented complexities of intergenerational living in today's world.

2012 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 5774 words || 
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2. Cheng, Xiuying. "Migrant Workers, Peasant Workers or Contract Workers?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Colorado Convention Center and Hyatt Regency, Denver, CO, Aug 16, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2018-09-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p564246_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Based on eighteen months ethnographic field work in central China, this paper attempts to explore the limits and potentials of the legal and political struggles for a group of migrant workers to defend their equal rights. These migrant workers got their political enlightenment and inspiration to equality from the joint street protests against “restructuring of SOEs” with the state workers. In order to get their material requests, they were directed into the bureaucratic field to clarify their identity and determine their rights, which turned the class struggle between the workers and their factory into a classification struggle with the state. Because of the inadequate official policies upon the migrant workers, they were discriminated as “peasant workers.” To insist on equal treatments as the state workers, these migrant workers turned to the legal system and tried to verify their identity as “contract workers.” They won the administrative litigation, which granted them no material rewards, and they failed the labor prosecution because their evidences were not legally qualified. This paper argues that the narrowly defined “legal labor rights” were not the effective way for the migrant workers to determine rights and make claims, rather they should appeal to the broader social framework of morality and justice.

2014 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 249 words || 
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3. Baribeau, Erin. "Hailing the Black Citizen-Worker: Articulating Labor and Race in the 1968 Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, The Hyatt Regency New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 09, 2014 <Not Available>. 2018-09-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p698349_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: As David Roediger (2002) writes, “iconography, public discourse, and historical writing” has often naturalized American workers and unions as “white and male.” Yet, in Memphis in 1968, the most consequential labor movement was not white, nor solely male. With this paper, I investigate the discursive processes by which the Memphis sanitation workers strike rearticulated American labor. First, and different from historical analyses, I theorize the strike as a “counterpublic,” foregrounding its discursive construction of the black “citizen-worker.” Employed within an oppressive racial hierarchy, black sanitation workers based their citizenship claims in their self-identification as equally dignified contributors to the city’s socioeconomic well-being. Second, I clarify the movement’s ideological contours by situating it in a complex web of discourses. The workers’ counterpublic was rooted in multiple visions of liberalism that celebrated individualism and colorblindness; yet, it also attacked liberalism’s undergirding of structural racism(s). My work theorizes the workers’ counterpublic as an idiosyncratic discursive moment that can’t be captured as either “liberal” or “radical,” colorblind or race-conscious. Third, though black workers faced a form of racial subordination that their white labor counterparts did not, their movement articulated race-class intersectionality and a civil rights-labor alliance on hostile discursive terrain: a terrain particular to the Jim Crow, right-to-work South, yet but whose discourses would have also been familiar in a city like Detroit. I conclude by briefly thinking about the ways in which the Memphis workers’ political legacy might provide twenty-first century workers with a “usable (discursive) past” for articulating social justice claims.

2012 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 7671 words || 
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4. Garrick, Jessica. "Litigating to Organize: Workers’ Centers, Immigrant Workers and the National Labor Relations Act" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Colorado Convention Center and Hyatt Regency, Denver, CO, Aug 16, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2018-09-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p564634_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Abstract: In the absence of effective government regulations and unions, community-based organizations known as workers’ centers have proliferated throughout the country in order to protect the rights of immigrant workers in the low wage labor market. While workers’ centers and their unique strategies have not gone overlooked, I argue here that the use of Section 7 of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) by some workers’ centers to pursue redress for nonunionized immigrant workers is one of their most innovative strategies. Section 7 protects workers’ concerted action regardless of their collective bargaining membership, thereby potentially protecting workers in a time of continuing deunionization. Workers’ center use of this provision thus sheds light upon a little-researched aspect of the NLRA. Unfortunately, more recent cases also provide evidence of the continued legal marginalization of immigrant workers. I provide examples of workers’ centers Section 7 cases from around the country, hypothesize about the nature of the workers’ center involvement, and discuss continuing challenges for immigrant workers in light of recent Supreme Court and National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) decisions.

2014 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 7757 words || 
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5. Reese, Ellen. and Struna, Jason. "Organizing Temporary and Immigrant Workers: Lessons from Change to Win’s Warehouse Workers United Campaign" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 15, 2014 Online <PDF>. 2018-09-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p726474_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Since 2008, Warehouse Workers United (an affiliate of Change to Win) has organized thousands of low-wage warehouse workers in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties in California, using innovative organizing methods. Warehouse Workers Resource Center (WWRC), a non-profit workers’ center formed in 2011, has also helped to provide additional legal services and other resources to warehouse workers. Combining protest tactics with an innovative legal strategy, WWU and WWRC have helped warehouse workers to win back millions of dollars of stolen wages by 2013. The success of this campaign is particularly remarkable given its uneven and, at times, limited funding. The decentralized structure of the warehouse industry along with the heavy reliance on labor subcontracting and temporary and immigrant labor also complicated the use of traditional union organizing and collective bargaining strategies and made workers highly vulnerable to employer intimidation and retaliation. The Republican domination of regional politics also constrained what could be won at the local level. In this paper, we examine the strategies employed by WWU and WWRC in this campaign and their outcomes drawing on participant observation, information provided to us by staff and student interns, and media and internet sources. This campaign provides important lessons for those seeking to organize other low-wage temporary and immigrant workers who are a growing share of the U.S. workforce and highly vulnerable to employer intimidation and retaliation. Yet, it also reveals the need for greater union investment in organizing the logistics industry, a critical sector of the contemporary global economy.

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