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2012 - The Law and Society Association Words: 430 words || 
1. Martin, Natasha. "Diversity and the Virtual Workplace: Performance Identity and Shifting Boundaries of Workplace Engagement" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village Resort, Honolulu, HI, Jun 03, 2012 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This project explores the meaning of workplace discrimination where reality meets the imaginary world in virtual workspaces. This project seeks to understand the emerging sub-culture of the contemporary workplace – the collaborative virtual environment – in which workers engage through digital identities in the form of avatars. Considering the nature of performance identity by employees and the impact of virtual engagement on workplace culture, the author posits that the multidimensionality of identity in this context illuminates the limitations of the categorical approach to anti-discrimination law in the employment context. Using a more recent development in the realm of virtual work–workplace avatars–the project explores the meaning of workplace discrimination where reality can be altered in virtual spaces. The article considers questions including – What is the impact of this realm of virtual work on workplace engagement, particularly given the malleability of identity through avataring? What is the impact on law of virtual performance identity by workers using avatars? How is the ethos of a workplace shaped by avatar-based work? Does the immersive virtual workplace hold promise for increasing diversity? Does this mode of engagement promote inclusion of marginalized workers, for example, or simply create more confusion of our understandings of discrimination?

Building on the performance identity literature in law, this paper pursues not only the complexity of identity, but also demonstrates how workplace avataring becomes a new avenue either for exercising agency or forced social exclusion within the contemporary workplace. Drawing on insights from interdisciplinary sources including organizational behavior, critical race theory, information science, and cognitive psychological research, this paper explores the social and behavioral dynamics among workers in a hyper-technical world, particularly in cyber work scenarios that blend real and imaginary work spaces using 3-D virtual representations.

The author’s premise is that the mechanics of identity in virtual workspaces, particularly immersive environments involving avatars, affect workplace interactions, and more broadly, workplace culture and interpersonal dynamics, creating a new locus for bias to flourish. Current protected class approaches to anti-discrimination law in employment has not served as the antidote to employment discrimination or created pathways for more inclusion. While virtual workspaces hold some appeal for diminishing barriers to entry and broader acceptance within organizations, the article concludes that virtual workspaces do not constitute unconditional and neutral spaces, creating dynamics that are just as dangerous to notions of belonging in the contemporary workplace as their physical counterparts. The article concludes that the phenomenon carriers profound implications for notions of belonging in the contemporary work setting and the management of workers.

2016 - American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting Words: 200 words || 
2. De Coster, Stacy. and Crowley, Martha. "Defiance as Corrective Action: The Interplay between Workplace Stresses and Workplace Stakes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, Nov 16, 2016 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: We merge perspectives from criminology, the sociology of work, and behavioral economics to develop a strain model of on-the-job manifestations of deviance in blue-collar and white-collar jobs. Our model identifies job-related strains likely to produce desires for corrective action, work-relevant bonds that serve variously as stakes in conformity or stakes in seeking corrective action, and workplace behaviors exemplifying retaliation and escape. We derive competing hypotheses from criminology and behavioral economics to conceptualize intrinsic (autonomy, creativity, and meaning) and extrinsic (pay and benefits) rewards disparately as stakes in workplace conformity or stakes in seeking corrective action through sabotage, effort defiance, and quitting/absenteeism. We test the competing hypotheses using OLS regressions on content-coded ethnographic data from 217 work groups (Hodson et al. 2011). Our findings are more supportive of behavioral economics than criminology and offer divergent findings across blue-collar and white-collar workers. We thusly offer correctives to the criminological literature on stresses and stakes and consider explanations for variation across white-collar and blue-collar workers. Our research generally suggests that organizations that expose employees to coercive and chaotic work environments risk diminishing work effort and increasing sabotage among employees with the most stakes in employment who are likely among their most valued employees.

2004 - American Sociological Association Pages: 12 pages || Words: 5133 words || 
3. Morett, Chris. "Is Putting Family First Frowned Upon at the Workplace?: Gender Differences in Workplace Culture" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: I investigate whether workers perceive putting family before work is frowned upon in the workplace. Many employers have provided policies to ease work-family conflict, but workplace cultural forces encouraging or demanding dedication may keep workers from using these policies.
If policies are not used, their promise for creating a more functional co-existence between work and family remain unfulfilled.
I focus on whether a worker’s gender impacts their experiences with these workplace cultural forces. Gender differences might help explain why women more likely take advantage of flexibility policies. Past research suggests a relationship between gender and expectations of workers, but this research is inconclusive in some respects.
A clearer understanding of work culture will improve efforts to shape corporate and public work-family policies. It is important to study gender differences in job flexibility because they may help explain inequality in pay and career advancement. They may also explain why women still perform the majority of domestic and child-rearing duties, even if they also engage in paid work.
I find no direct effect for either gender or a gender-parenthood interaction term. I run separate equations by gender, and the model for women has more significant predictors.
The variables that attain statistical significance—education, occupational category, occupational gender composition, and size of organization—are not easily manipulated. But these results may still inform policy if we can ascertain what it is about these kinds of jobs that increase the likelihood of a family-positive work culture and then “export” these characteristics to other jobs.

2010 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 7275 words || 
4. Serafini, Brian. "Workplace Composition, Organizational Structure, and the Incidence of Workplace Hostility" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Atlanta and Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, GA, Aug 14, 2010 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite a growing interest in the determinants of workplace hostility, there are few studies that connect job and organizational characteristics to the incidence of work-related conflict. In this paper I hypothesize that the demographic and work-status composition of the workforce, the quality of jobs, and the presence of formalized personnel practices affect levels of workplace hostility. I use data from the 2002 National Organizations Survey, a representative sample of organizations, to test my hypotheses with establishment-level data. I find that increased reliance on contingent employees and an increasing representation of African American employees predicts higher levels of hostility. Contrary to my expectations, I find no evidence that formalized personnel practices affect the incidence of work-related conflict. I conclude that worker social relations based on status characteristics are strong predictors of workplace hostility, and firms may reduce conflict by organizing in ways that reduce the importance of status differences in the workplace.

2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 605 words || 
5. Ahmadi, Mohammad Javad. "Capacity development and workplace learning: an analysis of factors influencing workplace learning at Afghan Ministry of Education, Department of Planning" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar 05, 2017 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research Purpose as related to CIE / Conference Theme:
Capacity development (CD) has become very popular in international development to the extent that some even call it “the overall goal of development" (Morgan, 2006, p. 3). Yet the results of capacity development programs have been often disappointing (Smithers, 2011; Fukuda-Parr, 2002). Many CIES members are somehow involved in CD programs, so it is important for us to explore how we as educators can build on our expertise to provide recommendations for improving CD programs.
There is a connection between capacity development and learning/teaching theories, especially workplace learning theories. Capacity development can be seen as the facilitation of workplace learning. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of how employees learn in the workplace and how personal and contextual factors facilitate or hinder the process of learning can provide important insights for improving CD interventions.
The purpose of my research was to explore the workplace learning experiences of the employees of the Afghanistan Ministry of Education (MoE), Department of Planning (DoP) who had participated in the International Institute of Educational Planning (IIEP) capacity development project. The specific research questions were as follows:
1) What factors do the Department of Planning employees report as influential in their workplace learning?
2) How do participants perceive that these factors influence their workplace learning?
3) How do participants perceive the effects of the IIEP capacity development project on their learning experiences?

Theoretical Framework:
The conceptual framework for this research is based on theories of learning, particularly theories of workplace learning (such as Billet, 2001, 2004; Lave and Wenger, 1990; Argyris and Schön, 1974; Kolb, 1984; Mezirow, 2000) as well as studies on capacity development (such as Morgan, 2006; Fukuda-Parr, 2002; Lopes and Theisohn, 2003). The framework highlights the importance of personal agency, the nature of tasks being performed, the guidance offered to the employee, and the contextual factors such as workplace culture and leadership, internal politics, incentives, and structural arrangements.
Research methods or modes of inquiry (including data sources, evidence, objects and/or materials)
I adopted the qualitative research approach and the critical incident technique for this research. I collected data through a series of three in-depth interviews with eight employees of the Department of Planning who had participated in IIEP capacity development project activities. A purposeful sampling strategy will be used for selecting the participants. The sample included four civil service employees and four national technical assistants working for the department.

Results and/or substantiated conclusions or warrants for arguments/point of view:
The participants’ stories of learning revealed that the following factors were influential in the participants’ workplace learning: the cognitive demand of tasks, the level of access to information, the level of interactions required for performing tasks, the existing incentives for learning such as promotion opportunities available within the department, scholarships for continuing education, the department’s culture of friendship, information sharing, and openness. In addition, the following personal factors were highlighted: personal self-confidence in learning, personal vision, gender, and English language skills.
The participants believed that the IIEP project’s approach of learning by doing was effective in facilitating their learning. The project’s impact was mostly through improving the department’s environment (like providing incentives and structural revisions) and deploying international and national technical assistants who work jointly with the department employees.

Scholarly significance, originality and/or creativity of the study or work:
This research stresses the importance of understanding the dynamics of informal workplace learning for designing capacity development interventions. Understanding how different factors influence experiential learning of specific groups of beneficiaries provides important insights for designing effective interventions.
The findings of this research can be used for improving the effectiveness of IIEP capacity development project and other capacity development and professional development programs in similar contexts.

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