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2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 969 words || 
1. Hu, Juan., Li, Liguo. and Pan, Kunfeng. "World-Class or A World of Classification?Problematizing China’s World-Class University Strategy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar 05, 2017 <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: 1. Purposes
That building world-class university has been a popular strategy in some countries. In China, it has been 18 years since Chinese government adopted world-class university strategy (the Strategy) in 1998. Recently, Chinese government issued a new Master Plan on promoting Chinese universities and disciplines into world-class. This new plan is called “Double World-class Construction”, and it is regarded as the continuation of world-class university strategy. It seems that the world-class university strategy was quite successful if we just observe the upgrading of Chinese key universities on the world ranking lists. However, what are the impacts of the Strategy on the whole Chinese higher education system?
Based on current literature, no official evaluation on the Strategy was done by the government. Some scholars have discussed the effectiveness of some key university projects under the Strategy, but those analyses largely focus on the promotion of research capability of key universities from a longitudinal perspective, and there has been no horizontal comparison between key universities and other universities, not to mention an evaluation from the ethical perspective.
This paper explores a new model of evaluation on the Strategy. It researches into the growing disparities between key universities and other universities in the past 10 years, and examines impacts of the Strategy on the whole Chinese higher education system.
2. Theoretical framework
This research is theoretically based on Fischer’s “practical reasoning”. “Practical reasoning” is a postpositivist logic of policy evaluation. It includes four phases of deliberation: 1) program verification, 2) situational validation, 3) societal-level vindication and 4) evaluation of values. It outlines a practical methodological framework that not only includes but logically transcends empirical analysis by interpreting the meaning of its data in both the context of action and a larger investigation of the working of society, including a critique of its social and political values. Based on this methodology, this paper devises a fact-value interdependent evaluation framework. The four phases of deliberation are concluded into two discourses. At the first-order discourse, the outcomes of some key universities are examined; at the second-order discourse, the impacts of the Strategy on the higher education system as a whole and its social and political values are evaluated.
3. Research methods & data sources
In this paper, empirical and normative research methods are both employed. Data analysis will be carried out in the verification of program outcomes, while in the phrases of societal-level vindication and values evaluation, interviews and critical interpretation will be employed.
In terms of data analysis, we classified universities directly under the Ministry of Education into two categories, including key universities and other universities. Then we utilized four regression models to discuss the performance of these two categories. The data comes from the Statistics on Universities Directly under the Ministry of Education (2005-2014) compiled by the Chinese Ministry of Education.
In terms of critical interpretation, we build a model of normative principles of higher education through literature research. Then we commit interviews with people from different interest groups. The interviewees include government officials, university leaders and administrators, faculties and students. The latter three kinds of interviewees are chosen both from key universities and other universities.
4. Preliminary results
Based on the initial data analysis, the Strategy played an important role in the development of beneficiary universities. Compared with other universities, key universities developed much more quickly in terms of disciplines, research papers, and attraction to domestic and international students in the past ten years. However, the Strategy artificially widened the gap between key universities and other universities, destroyed a fair competitive environment. Currently, compared with decades ago, it is more difficult for non-key universities to build a national reputation. A highly stratified higher education system has been formed under the push of the Strategy and relevant projects.
5、Scholarly Significance and Originality
This study is original and thought-provoking. It discusses pros and cons brought by the Strategy through empirical and normative analysis. It examines the Strategy from perspectives of multi-stakeholders. It tries to explore a comprehensive framework to evaluate the strategy, which is rare in previous studies. It contributes to the comparative studies among different countries in this field.
Chen, X.F., 2011. Ideal-Oriented Policymaking: An Analysis of th4e 985 Project Policy Process. Chinese Education and Society, Vol. 44, No.5, pp.8-18.
Cheng, Y., 2011. A Reflection on the Effects of the 985 Project. Chinese Education and Society, Vol. 44, No.5, pp.19-30.
Clercq, F.D, 1997. Policy Intervention and Power Shifts: An Evaluation of South Africa’s Education Restructing Policies. Journal of Education Policy, Vol.12, No.3, pp.127-146.
The China’s State Council, 2015. Master Plan on Promoting Chinese Universities and Disciplines into World-Class.
Dunn, W.N., 2008. Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction. Pearson, the 4th edition.
Fischer, F., 1993. Reconstructing Policy Analysis: A Postpositivist Perspective. Policy Sciences, Vol.25, pp.333-339.
Fischer, F., 1995. Evaluating Public Policy. Nelson-Hall, Chicago.
Gao, X.W., 2008. Public Policy Evaluation: Systems and Procedures. Chinese Public Administration, Vol.2, pp.58-62.
Li, H. Y., Z, M.X., & Lv, Y., 2014. Higher Education Resources Utilization Efficiency and “985 Project” Performance Analysis. China Higher Education Research, Vol.5, pp.38-43.
The Ministry of Education, 2005-2014.The Statistics on Universities Directly under the Ministry of Education (internaldocument).
The Ministry of Education, 2013. The Management Approaches on Project 98/5 (document).
The Ministry of Education, 2016. Introduction to Project 98/5 (document).
The Ministry of Education, 2016. Introduction to Project 21/1 (document).
Research Group, 2013. A Report on Performance Evaluation Research of Colleges and Universities in 2012. Educational Research, Vol.10, pp.55-64.
Shin, J.C., 2009. Building World-Class Research University: the Brain Korea 21 Project. Higher Education, Vol.58, pp.669-688.
Xie, M., 2015. Introduction to Public Policy, Renmin University Press, Beijing.
Yan, G.C., 2011. Thoughts on the Role of Government in the Development of World-Class Universities in China, Chinese Education and Society, Vol. 44, No.5, pp.57-66.
Yang, R., & Welch, A., 2012. A World-Class University in China? The Case of Tsinghua. Higher Education, Vol.63, pp.645-666.
Zhang, H., Patton, D., & Kenney, M., 2013. Building Global-Class Universities: Assessing the Impact of the 985 Project. Research Policy, Vol. 42, pp.765-775.

2004 - International Studies Association Pages: 1 pages || Words: 444 words || 
2. Wood, Nancy. "Another World Is Possible: The World Social Forum and the Feminization of an Alternative World" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Patriarchal structures have existed for nearly 6,000 years, with the current dominant and states-supported multinational corporate capitalist structure (globalization from above - GFA) being the latest stage of patriarchy. This most recent form of patriarchy subsumes all countries into a global class system that is characterized by asymmetrical development, environmental and ecological destruction and enormous inequalities between the haves and have-nots of the world. Women, children and the very poor are particularly brutalized by this system. It is a system maintained by and dependent upon ever-increasing forms of structural and direct violence, particularly highly technologized and militarized violence. In the midst of this annihilationist historical moment is the development of a global peace movement – an expression of globalization from below (GFB). During the few months preceding the US-led illegal invasion/war in Iraq of March 2003, a worldwide anti-war/peace movement rapidly surfaced, demanding that the United Nations Weapons Inspections be allowed to continue and that no war on Iraq take place without the support of the United Nations Security Council. Millions of people around the world took to the streets to oppose this U.S.-led war on Iraq. Even in countries where political elites supported the U.S. preemptive strike war, (e.g. United Kingdom and Spain), millions of people in civil society opposed their governments' positions by marching in protests, holding vigils and rallies, and e-mailing petitions of dissent across the globe. This global peace movement phenomenon reflects a growing global civil society which adopts as its core such values as cooperation, conciliatoriness, compassion, interdependence, fairness, inclusion, reciprocity and egalitarianism – qualities and characteristics most often associated with the feminine. Using the recent global peace movement as a case study, this work explores a major dichotomy that appears to be taking place in the world today – the masculine dominant GFA counter positioned by an evolving global alternative (GFB) rooted in the feminine. Thus, the research by Nancy Lee Wood links the rapid rise of popular resistance to the Iraqi invasion to the growth of a global civil society, rooted in feminine values, converging across national borders. Through the NGO Forums convened alongside the official intergovernmental, U.N. sponsored world conferences and at the World Social Forums convened in Brazil over the past three years, this global civil society has begun to evolve a vision of democratic, self-governance more radical and more feminine-based than can be accommodated by contemporary neo-liberal structures.

2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 37 pages || Words: 19640 words || 
3. Weaver, Catherine. "The World's Bank and the Bank's World: Towards a Gross Anatomy of the World Bank" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The paper tackles the essential question of who or what shapes and drives the policy and operational behavior of the World Bank? The central argument is that we need to examine both the external (political) and internal (bureaucratic culture) environments of the Bank. The paper begins by examining the theoretical and analytical tools employed by principal-agent models and sociological organizational culture to analyze organizational behavior. I then turn to the main focus of the paper, which is a detailed historical description and empirical analysis of the Bank’s dual environments. I start with the world’s Bank, focusing primarily on the Bank’s relationship with its principal member states and NGOs. I take special note of the Bank’s relationship with the U.S.. In the second half, I focus on the “Bank’s world”, investigating the internal bureaucratic politics and culture of the Bank. Specifically, I examine the sources and evolution of the Bank’s “intellectual culture” (characterized by its economistic, apolitical and technical rationality) and its ‘operational culture’ (portrayed as driven by approval and disbursement imperatives).

2010 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 6986 words || 
4. Austin, Kelly., McKinney, Laura. and Kick, Edward. "World Polity, World-Systems, or World Civilizations? The Strucutre of the Global Embassy Network" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Atlanta and Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, GA, Aug 14, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2020-01-27 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines the structure of global embassy relations between nation-states. Studies of embassies are virtually absent in the field of sociology, despite that globalization has created extreme increases in diplomatic and cultural exchange among countries. Review of relevant literature including world polity, world-systems, and world civilizations theory in the context of embassies point to divergent predictions in the structure of embassy relations; world polity proposes a fairly even pattern, world-systems theory asserts hierarchical structure, and world civilizations theory argues for a culturally fragmented pattern. Structural equivalent blockmodeling techniques of social networks analysis is used to examine the organization of embassy associations across nations. Overall, the results illustrate a very stratified core-periphery structure of embassy relations, which also has some limited consistency with the ideas of world polity theory and world civilizations hypothesis. The results imply that economically-powerful core nations also dominate embassy relations, and likely use their influence in this network to structure foreign relations to their own benefit.

2009 - ISPP 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting Words: 175 words || 
5. Imhoff, Roland. "Money rules the world, the USA dominate the world, Jews rule the world! - Conspiracy mentality as underlying factor of antisemitism, personalized anti-capitalism and anti-Americanism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: Antisemitic patterns of thought are deeply connected to ideas about a Jewish world conspiracy. Such a binary world-view where others conspire with evil intention has been termed ‘projectivity’ in the California F-Scale or conspiracy mentality (Moscovici). More recent approaches in authoritarianism research have neglected such a pattern of thought although it might help to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the connection between antisemitism and a personalized anti-capitalism and anti-Americanism on the one hand and the difference between antisemitism and other group-based prejudices on the other hand. In a first study we could show that the correlation between antisemitism and anti-capitalism and anti-Americanism collapsed when conspiracy mentality was controlled for and that conspiracy mentality had incremental validity in explaining antisemitism over and above modern conceptions of right-wing authoritarianism alone. The main results were replicated in an online study with a larger sample and additional discriminative validity was provided. The implications of these results are discussed with regard to the differentiation between antisemitism and other forms of prejudice and the role of conspiracy mentality in political views.

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