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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Lipko-Speed, Amanda., Buchert, Stephanie., Stephan, Gina. and Merriman, William. "Modeling Helps Four-year-olds, but not Three-year-olds, Improve Their Knowledge Judgments" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p954915_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The ability to judge one’s knowledge increases over childhood (Rohwer, Kloo, & Perner, 2012, for citations). Preschoolers are especially prone to overestimating their knowledge in situations in which they possess only partial knowledge. For example, in Rohwer et al.’s study, 3- to 7-year-olds watched a toy being hidden in a box (complete knowledge), received no information about the toy (complete ignorance), or viewed two toys and received information that one of them was hidden in the box (partial knowledge). When asked whether they knew which toy was hidden, all groups responded accurately on complete knowledge and ignorance trials; however, only children older than 5 acknowledged their ignorance on partial knowledge trials.

We explored whether children might overcome this difficulty if an adult modeled correct judgments. Previously, modeling has helped children overcome their tendency to report knowing what unfamiliar words mean (Lipko-Speed, Buchert, & Merriman, 2013). Twenty-four younger (age range = 3-0 to 3-9) and 26 older (range = 3-10 to 4-6) preschoolers participated. Approximately half per group participated in the modeling condition, with the others in the control condition.

In the modeling condition, the child watched two adults play a game in which one adult hid one of two toys. The other adult was asked whether she knew which toy was hidden. On the two complete knowledge trials, after the adult indicated, “Yes (I know),” she was asked to name the toy and say whether she really knew or was just guessing. She responded, “I really know.” When asked how, she responded, “I saw you put the [e.g., cat] in the box.” On the two partial knowledge trials, after the adult responded, “No (I don’t know),” she indicated, “I didn’t see which one you put inside the box,” when asked why she didn’t know. The experimenter and the child then played this same game, but with different toys.

In the control condition, the child watched the adults play a different game for which one adult watched another adult hide a toy behind a screen and then answered whether there was a (correct name/incorrect name) behind the screen. The experimenter and child then played the knowledge game.

Like Rohwer et al.’s results, every age x condition group reported their knowledge accurately on complete knowledge trials (Mcorrect = 1.90 of 2). Also, all but one group performed poorly on partial knowledge trials, correctly saying that they didn’t know what was in the box less than half the time (M = 0.77 of 2). The exception was that the older children performed better on the partial task in the modeling condition (M = 1.67; 9 of 12 total). The effect of condition was significant only among the older children, p =.004 (see Figure 1). Modeling also increased older children’s frequency of saying they “really knew” which toy was hidden on complete knowledge trials (Ms = 1.67 vs. 1.14).

Most 4-year-olds overcame their typical metacognitive judgment error after watching an adult make correct judgments. There was no evidence that such modeling helped 3-year-olds.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
Info
2. Benjamin, Natalie. and Warneken, Felix. "Three-year-olds, but not two-year-olds, share more with cooperators than defectors" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p960290_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Theoretical models of human cooperation highlight reciprocity as an important strategy for individuals to ensure long-term benefits from repeated interactions (Trivers, 1971). Specifically, by selectively cooperating with those who reciprocate favors and avoid defectors, individuals can reap the benefits of cooperation and safeguard against exploitation. Developmental research has begun to investigate when this ability emerges in childhood. In a recent experiment in which children interacted with a single individual who either cooperated or defected over repeated trials, 3.5-year-olds, but not 2.5-year-olds, shared more resources with a cooperator than with a defector (Warneken & Tomasello, 2013). However, in a forced-choice paradigm, 21-month-old children were more likely to help a previously nice person over a mean person (e.g. Dunfield & Kuhlmeier, 2010). Thus, while children seem indiscriminate when choosing how to distribute payoffs to a single individual (payoff choice), they alter their cooperative behavior when deciding between two individuals with different characteristics (social choice). The current experiment integrated these methods into a single paradigm to assess when children begin to adjust their sharing towards cooperators and defectors. We tested the hypothesis that young children are more naïve cooperators and become more selective in their sharing in middle childhood (Warneken & Tomasello, 2009).
In an experiment with N = 32 children at 2.5 and 3.5 years of age, the child and a partner (a puppet) both needed balls to play a game. Children interacted with both a cooperator and a defector (matched for gender) in two blocks of two trials each (within-subject). Thus, they could share with the cooperator in one trial block and with the defector in another trial block (order counterbalanced). Each trial started with an exposure phase, in which the child observed the cooperator divide up 8 balls between herself and the child (sharing exactly half) and the defector divide up 8 balls (keeping all to herself). During the second phase of each trial, children were given 8 balls to distribute between themselves and either the cooperator or the defector (depending on condition). The main dependent measure was the number of balls shared. In a posttest, children were asked to indicate which partner did not share any balls, to assess if they had encoded which puppet had defected.
Results showed that 3-year-olds shared more balls with the cooperator than the defector, t(15) = 2.97, p < .01, whereas 2-year-olds shared the same amount with both, t(15) = .43, p = .67 (see Figure 1). This result is congruent with the hypothesis that children’s prosocial behavior becomes more selective over development, while young children are very limited in their ability to adjust their prosociality in the face of defection. Children of both age groups were equally good at identifying the defector, 70% of individuals, χ2 (df = 2) = .02, ns. This confirms prior evidence that young children are able to differentiate between prosocial and antisocial individuals.
We discuss how over development, children’s ability to detect uncooperative behavior and their own prosocial tendencies become integrated to stabilize their own cooperative behavior.

2010 - NCA 96th Annual Convention Words: 60 words || 
Info
3. Allison, Audrey. "Mentoring Adult Scholars from Two-year to Four-year Institutions: The Lambda Pi Eta Advisor’s Role" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 96th Annual Convention, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p424180_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In organizational communication systems, the principle of equifinality reflects the idea of multiple starting points leading to a common destination. For honor students in the Communication discipline, that destination is academic and professional achievement. This position paper will examine opportunities for strategic bridge-building: from 2-year to 4-year institutions, from student to professional development, and from academic to organizational roles.

2006 - American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Words: 251 words || 
Info
4. Mort, Jane., Fischer, Janet. and Lemon, Michael. "Impact of a Third Year Pharmacotherapeutics Lab on Clinical Skills in the Fourth Year." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California, USA, Jul 05, 2006 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p117858_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: Objective: Determine the impact of a third year pharmacotherapeutics lab on subsequent clinical skills of fourth year students. Methods: Clinical faculty completed a clinical skills evaluation tool for students they precepted on the first Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) of the fourth year. The tool examined nine clinical skills on a five point Likert scale (1 being always and 5 being never). The tool was completed in the third week of the first APPE. The evaluation was performed the year before and the year after the lab course was implemented. Not all students had their first APPE with clinical faculty and therefore this is a sample of convenience. The lab course included mock ambulatory care experiences and evolving case studies. The lab was designed to improve application of knowledge and better prepare students for APPE's. Results: The sample involved 39.7% (n=23) of the class who did not have the lab and 39.3% (n=22) of those having the lab. Those students having the lab scored better (i.e., lower mean scores) on eight of the nine skills examined compared to those not having the lab. The score for the one remaining item did not change. Students taking the lab had a lower clinical skills mean compared to those who had not had the lab (2.6 and 2.9, respectively; p=0.05). Implications: The pharmacotherapeutics lab appears to impact students' clinical skills. Improvement in these areas will help students gain greater knowledge from the initial APPE.

2007 - American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Words: 255 words || 
Info
5. Ramaley, Corinne., Ramsinghani, Sushma., Phillips, Shay., Morris, Andrew., Campbell, Vera., Fisher, Damien., Javier, June., Martin, Tonya., Morris, Susan., Morse, Joanne., Ndemo, Francis. and McLean, Hugh. "One year and three year postgraduation alumni surveys: an assessment tool in Pharm.D. programs." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Disney’s Yacht & Beach Club Resort, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, Jul 14, 2007 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p196022_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: Objectives: Systematic assessment of professional pharmacy programs is mandated by the accreditation standards adopted by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. At Hampton University, one year and three year postgraduation alumni surveys were developed 1) to assess alumni satisfaction with their professional education and 2) to identify areas of the program and curriculum where improvement is needed.
Methods: Alumni completed one year and three year postgraduation surveys to determine satisfaction with their education, including preparation for a residency; quality of instruction, curriculum, advising and career guidance; preparation for delivering pharmaceutical care; and achievement of the professional practice based outcomes. Areas needing improvement were defined as those items in the survey with a combined satisfaction rating of less than 70% in the upper two categories (very satisfied and mostly satisfied).
Results: Six areas were identified for improvement: teaching how to manage a pharmacy, student advisement, quality of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), clinical skills instruction, TPN preparation, and loan consolidation/financial planning assistance. Corrective actions were defined for each area.
Implications: Positive outcomes develop from the use of alumni surveys as an assessment tool. At Hampton University, an elective will be offered in Pharmacy Management, a comprehensive advisement program has been established, additional internal faculty preceptors have been hired to teach clinical APPEs, more TPN preparation has been incorporated in the curriculum and financial planning advisors have been invited to speak at forum. The use of alumni survey data becomes a key factor in improving program quality.

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