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2014 - Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference Words: 770 words || 
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1. Yang, Kyung-Hwa. "Youth to Youth: The potential of cellphilmmaking for youth to create policy on their behavior" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2018-10-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p714826_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The purpose of the article is to discuss how participatory video can contribute to youth creating policy on their own behavior for themselves. This discussion builds on the theoretical dimensions of participatory methodologies discussed by Chambers (2008). He argued that participatory methodologies are grounded in a bottom-up logic that operates in self-organizing systems on the edge of chaos mode, stating that participants “looked up not upwards and outside for authority, but to themselves, and took ownership and pride in their self-organizing and adaptive systems” (p. 176). This suggests that when people engage in participatory research, they can make rules and guidelines and theorize their experiences. His argument offers a new way of conceptualizing policy.

Using this theoretical framework, I look at a youth participatory video project conducted in South Africa in the context of HIV and AIDS education. This project used cellphilmmaking (Dockney & Tomaselli, 2009) as the main method of data generation. Twenty-three youth in grade 9 worked together to address issues of HIV and AIDS from their perspectives. In smaller groups (two groups of girls and two groups of boys), they chose topics and created storyboards and group cellphilms. After the participants and I viewed them together, I prompted them to comment on each cellphilm and asked whether viewers, especially other youth, would understand the messages that they, as filmmakers, had intended to deliver through the cellphilms. The participants agreed to revise their cellphilms in order to make their voices more prominent. The following is a brief synopsis of the second set of cellphilms they created.

The first cellphilm Unsafe Sex portrays a boy who, despite his father’s advice to use condoms in having sex with his girlfriend, refused to use a condom and became HIV-positive. At the end of the cellphilm, the boys tell their audience the importance of using condoms. In Drug Abuse, a group of boys abuse drugs at school. Confronted by their teacher, they begin to quarrel with him and continue to use drugs. One of them ends up losing consciousness. HIV and AIDS portrays a girl who is raped by her mother’s boyfriend and then becomes HIV-positive. At the end of the cellphilm, she says that all children who are raped should speak out and talk to their parents or anyone they can trust. Peer Pressure, a group of girls encourage each other to have sex with their boyfriends because of the fear of losing their boyfriends. Two of them then come to know that they are sexually involved with the same man and end up in a tragedy. They, too, offer some guidelines for behavior, encouraging youth not to accept peer pressure.

I use qualitative content analysis (Mayring, 2000; Hsieh & Shannon, 2005) to examine the participant-created videos. Looking at the two sets of videos side-by-side, I pay particular attention to the ways in which the youth participants made their voices prominent. Those cellphilms may or may not be a representation of their daily experiences. Nevertheless they allude to the kinds of risks the youth were exposed to in their daily lives. More importantly than this is that the participants themselves generated solutions to the issues they had raised. In Unsafe Sex, for instance, the boys talk about condoms and recommend using them, which some teachers (and parents) hesitate to talk about (Courage and Hope, 2008). In doing so, they set up rules of behavior for themselves. This suggests that the video project allowed the participating youth to come up with some form of ‘policy’ on their behavior.

I argue that cellphilmmaking or participatory visual work has great potential for encouraging youth to think about their experiences from a new perspective and to come up with ideas and suggestions about what youth should do to cope with challenges they face; in doing so, youth can create policy on their own behavior without obtrusive adult instructions. However, I also argue, adult guidance is necessary to enable youth to do so because children’s “exercise of voice” is “dependent upon adequate provision of care and safety” given by adults (Luttrell, 2010, p. 234). An important question to ask, thus, is how to balance between guidance and instruction so that children can feel free to voice themselves and to create policy on their behavior. Participatory visual work may be advantageous in this matter, as it limits the influence of the adult researcher and disrupts power relations between the researcher and children (Mannay, 2013; Mason, 2005; Yates, 2010).

2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 20 pages || Words: 9650 words || 
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2. Ginwright, Shawn. "Youth Activism and Youth Development among African American Youth in Urban Communities" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2018-10-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p106524_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: There is a growing interest among youth development researchers about the relationship between the young people’s individual developmental needs and the crucial roles they play as civic actors. Increased interest in civic participation, particularly among youth, is largely encouraged by concerns raised by Putnam, who believes that America is experiencing dangerously low levels of civic, community and political participation (Putnam 2000). Civic engagement or civic participation can be described as a range of activities that strengthen social ties, builds collective responsibility and benefits society as a whole. Putnam noted, that 20-year-olds today are 50 percent- less likely to vote than 20-year-olds 60 years ago and therefore much less likely to participate in other forms of civic activities. However, there is growing evidence that supports the idea that young people in low-income communities are increasingly participating in civic and political activities.

This paper is guided by three objectives. First this paper builds knowledge through qualitative investigation about how youth in urban neighborhoods develop political awareness and participate in civic activities. The study details the community, familial, peer group and social influences on political and civic participation among African American youth ages of 15 and 25 develop in Oakland, California. Second the paper document interventions and organizational practices in schools, community centers, churches that shape civic and political participation. Third the paper advances sociological theory regarding youth political engagement by developing a framework that deepens our understanding of the relationship between urban environments and the development of political ideas among youth.

2011 - SCRA Biennial Meeting Words: 215 words || 
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3. Petrokubi, Julie. "From Youth Commission to Youth Infusion: A Case Study of Youth-Adult Partnership in Local Government" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SCRA Biennial Meeting, Roosevelt University/Harold Washington Library, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2018-10-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p503254_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Around the world, there is growing momentum to engage youth as partners in community-wide governance, organizing and service. These opportunities for practical civics have the potential to significantly expand the scope and impact of youth empowerment and democratic education practice. Yet limited research is available to guide the practice and evaluation of these youth-adult partnerships, especially in policy settings. Building upon our youth activism research (Zeldin & Petrokubi, 2008), this study aims to address this gap by describing the civic outcomes and associated practices emerging from a nationally-recognized effort to engage youth in local government decision-making and action.

This study examines the historic impact and current work of the Multnomah Youth Commission (MYC), official youth policy advisory body to city/county government in Portland, Oregon. The project follows the MYC over one year, as diverse youth ages 13-21 work together to influence public policy and programs. Participant observation, focus groups and action research with MYC youth and staff provides insight on key practices and outcomes. Archival documents and interviews with diverse stakeholders (eg. government staff, elected officials, educators, community agencies, parents) offer additional perspective on outcomes. Analysis employs grounded theory techniques. The study will result in reports on the research, policy and practice implications for youth civic learning and action in government, school and community-based settings.

2013 - SCRA Biennial Meeting Words: 157 words || 
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4. Mortensen, Jennifer., Lichty, Lauren. and Foster-fishman, Pennie. "Youth Perceptions of Leadership: Comparing Youth and Adult Ideas of Leadership to Inform Future Youth Development Programs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SCRA Biennial Meeting, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, <Not Available>. 2018-10-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p653196_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Little research exists on how youth define leadership and how these definitions compare to traditional adult views of leadership. Many youth leadership programs are developed using adult theories of leadership, which often emphasize power and authority. Adults wield much more power and authority than youth, and without that power and authority, youth must construct a different definition of leadership for their current role in society.

Without understanding how youth define leadership, we cannot create programs that effectively meet their needs. In this project, we used Photovoice to ask youth what leadership looks like. Five ideas emerged in the youths' narratives: leadership is available to anyone in any context; and involves creating change, collective action, modeling and mentoring, and strong character. This presentation will compare how youth involved in the WV NYLI project defined leadership as compared to existing adult leadership theories in an effort to advance our understanding of leadership through a youth lens.

2014 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 4679 words || 
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5. Peek, Lori. and Tobin-Gurley, Jennifer. "Youth Creating Disaster Recovery: An International Community-based Participatory Research Project with Youth" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 15, 2014 Online <PDF>. 2018-10-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p727010_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Participatory approaches to knowledge production are premised on assumptions that local actors—including both adults and youth—have knowledge and experience that is critical to understanding and changing social problems that affect these individuals and their communities. Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) incorporates community capacity building and empowerment as guiding principles of the research process. Although still underutilized in crisis and post-disaster settings, this approach may be particularly effective for working with populations living in disrupted environments. Youth have historically been understudied and often excluded in disaster research practice. Yet, a growing body of evidence suggests that they want to be actively engaged and when they are, can contribute in myriad ways to their own preparedness and recovery processes. This paper tells the story of one initiative aimed at learning from and with youth about their post-disaster recovery experiences. Youth Creating Disaster Recovery (YCDR) is a newly established youth recovery and youth empowerment program. Located in the communities of Joplin, Missouri in the United States and Slave Lake, Alberta, in Canada, YCDR engages youth between the ages of 13-18 in creative activities and workshop engagement sessions. In addition to describing the research studies, this paper also identifies the successes and challenges associated with engaging directly with youth in disaster affected settings.

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